"Patterns of financial exclusion coincided with the emergence of many cities. In the second half of the 1970s, many organizations attempted to fight urban housing abandonment by focusing on the problem of access to banking credit."
"A black economy (sometimes called the black market or the shadow or parallel economy) comes into existence in any community when both legal and illegal enterprises affecting daily life avoid paying taxes. Black economy thrives in a variety of contexts. On the illegal front, sources of income may come through smuggling, gambling, black marketing, prostitution, or bribes made as payments for favors."
"Community currencies are fast-growing money and exchange systems operating on a local level in municipalities and regions worldwide. [G]eographical limitation provides more frequent opportunities for local interactions, which in turn promotes a sense of community."
"Through CED, community organizations have now become players in the process of economic development. These initiatives are often not-for-profit and are democratically managed. The outcomes are diverse, reflecting the different geographies, politics, cultures, and traditions of each region. These have varied from the promotion of small-scale enterprises or training programs that were put in place to employ people who faced long-term unemployment, to loan funds to support CED initiatives, to planning initiatives that promote local economic development."
"Development projects and strategies that aim at improving women's lives are likely then to work with women, providing them some avenue of support in both their domestic and public lives. Such projects will also aim at giving women some control over their activities and participation in the organization, the goal being to empower those who participate in the project. Projects involving the lending of credit or so-called microcredit banks are both popular and fairly successful among poor women around the world."
"The same activity can be considered formal or informal, depending on the larger social and political context. Similarly, the boundary between legal and illegal often determines whether an exchange is considered informal...Just as criminal activity pushes the boundaries of common understanding of informal work at one end of the spectrum, self-provisioning falls into similar ambiguous territory at the other."
"Local Exchange Trading Schemes or Systems (LETS) are local, not-for-profit, community-based networks for exchanging goods and services using a local trading system. LETS serve as a new form of economic organization that is intended to support the sustainable development of a community."
Local knowledge refers to people's knowledge of their own circumstances and lived experiences, whether those be community residents for whom public policies are being legislated or the legislators' staff members or the implementors of public policies (or any other setting).
"Street markets are places where people exchange goods in an open and often temporary setting. Also called informal sector activity, street markets serve many purposes in a community. They are a meeting place where participants exchange information and build relationships; they can revitalize a community or a district; or, because they have low or no overhead or capital, they can serve as an employment option for people at the economic base of a society."
"Microcredit is the provision of small loans, usually to poor and vulnerable groups, especially women [which] are designed to encourage the production and consumption by the poor or nearpoor through the establishment and maintenance of entrepreneurial activities allowing the borrower, or group of borrowers, to become economically self-sufficient as well as create employment opportunities for the larger community."
"Many of these practices are not in themselves illegal; it is possible and quite common for a lender and loanee to renegotiate the terms of a loan, for example. However, predatory practitioners take advantage of those people unable to provide informed consent. Vulnerable groups include the elderly, those for whom the language of the agreement is not the native language and those with a legal status that prevents them from taking full recourse of the protection of the law."
"Redlining occurs where institutional mortgage lending is the norm and when institutions decline to make loans in (that is, draw a red line around) specific areas. The practice can affect commercial and industrial districts, but the term is usually reserved for the analysis of housing markets and residential areas."
" recognize[s] the multidimensional nature of poverty and of “being shut out, fully or partially, from any of the social, economic, political and cultural systems which determine the social integration of a person in society,”
"The assumption underlying social learning is that stakeholders possess the capacity and willingness to learn from each other and, where necessary, to modify their positions to arrive at a shared definition of public good as it relates to the problem at hand."