" the process of critical consciousness raising in which learners develop a deeper understanding of the forces operating to shape their lives and their capacity to act in ways to change that reality... In curriculum studies, conscientization refers to a learner moving toward a higher level of consciousness by becoming aware of how larger social, economic, cultural, and political forces operate to make things the way they are."
Countries and regions that are described as part of the developing world typically are characterized by low levels of average income; high rates of poverty; wide social, economic, and spatial inequalities; and high levels of dependence on the markets and products of advanced industrial countries.
"The concept excluded/marginalized voices developed with the underlying premise that educational institutions are a microcosm of larger society. Schools reproduce social inequities by reflecting and perpetuating dominant cultural attitudes and values. Educational practices exclude certain voices while privileging others by positioning certain ways of knowing as objective and devoid of racial, gender, and class politics...This structuring of silence occurs as power dynamics sustain and legitimate the silencing that occurs at an institutional level."
This article presents an overview of the environmental values, knowledge, and subsistence strategies of indigenous peoples both in their traditional contexts and in the contexts of colonialism and globalization.
Indigenous research seeks to deconstruct the Eurocentric models of the past and to regain the critical consciousness of the cultural, historical, and linguistic roots of indigenous peoples. Indigenous research regains this critical consciousness through the teachings, stories, and actions of indigenous peoples in their schools and in their communities.
Local knowledge refers to people's knowledge of their own circumstances and lived experiences, whether those be community residents for whom public policies are being legislated or the legislators' staff members or the implementors of public policies (or any other setting).
postcolonial theory focuses on interrogating and unpacking such effects of colonialism as the exploitation of human and natural resources and the shaping of discourses, education, language, and identity. Postcolonial theory also addresses contradictions arising from colonization such as the internalization of the colonizer by the colonized, and the fact that the aftermath of colonialism is evident in the colonizing countries and peoples as well as in the former colonies.
A central feature of anticolonial and postcolonial thought is the recognition that colonization is a sophisticated and multileveled ideological process, which operates both externally and internally. In reality, colonization is not restricted to physical deprivation, legal inequality, economic exploitation, and classist, racist, and sexist unofficial or official assumptions. [It includes a psychological dimension wherein] the colonized become their own oppressor, in that they exert the colonizers' imaginary suppositions of inferiority upon their own self-esteem...the objectification and dehumanization of the colonized.
One is self-governing when one obeys only those laws, rules, or norms of which one is the author, or can reasonably endorse in some way. A city, state, or group is self-governing when it is free from external domination, and thus free to pursue its own chosen ends of its own will
"Whereas scientific and other “master” knowledges are founded on claims of universality created through supposed objective detachment, feminist researchers argue that situating knowledge enables more critical thinking whereby the transcendent is replaced by partial and politicized knowledge claims...Producing situated knowledge also entails processes of reflexivity—itself a kind of “self-regard”—to avoid the god trick of the objective master gaze and locate oneself relative to others and hegemonic social discourses."
Sustainable development is the promotion of developmental patterns that will enable current human generations to meet their needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.