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Online Encyclopedias

For reference sources related to massacres and atrocities committed against Indigenous peoples, see also the Subject Guide for Indigenous Studies.


Primary Sources

Institute for Holocaust, Genocide and Memory Studies

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Museums, Libraries and Institutes

Revisionist Web Resources

Warning: Readers may find some or all of these sites offensive.The materials linked to on this page are included to provide a glimpse into how controversial  debates over genocides are, and to illustrate the inflammatory nature of some of these websites. Their inclusion in no way represents an endorsement of quality or accuracy on the part of the University of Winnipeg Library.

Use the criteria in the History subject guide as guidelines for assessing the content of these websites.

Researching Native American Genocide

The topic of genocide in the Americas is considered a controversial one: within the field of genocide studies there is considerable debate as to whether or not what was inflicted on the continent's Indigenous peoples qualified as "genocide." The government of Canada does not recognize the use of this term in this context. As such, researching Native American genocide poses some difficulties, as standard subject headings related to genocide rarely apply. A small percentage of titles have been assigned the subject headings "Genocide - Canada" or "Genocide - United States." More often, however these are the commonly used headings:

Indians of North America --

  • Treatment of
  • Violence against
  • Crimes against
  • Assimilation
  • Government relations
  • Relocation
  • Education
  • Wars

See also:

  • United States – Ethnic Relations
  • United States – Race relations
  • Columbus, Christopher -- Influence
  • Forced migration - United States
  • Massacres – United States
  • California -- Gold Discoveries -- social aspects


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